I had been teaching about neo-liberal economic theory in my class and thought I should probably read this book to understand it better. I'm glad I did. In addition to explaining the nuts and bolts of A Brief History of Neoliberalism. David Harvey. Neoliberalism - the doctrine that market exchange is an ethic in itself, capable of acting as a guide for all human action - has become dominant in both thought and practice throughout much of the world since or so. Its spread has depended upon a reconstitution of state powers such that privatization, finance, and market processes are emphasized.
Anti-capitalism Capitalist state Consumerism Crisis theory Criticism of capitalism Cronyism Culture of capitalism Exploitation Globalization History History of theory Market economy Periodizations of capitalism Perspectives on capitalism Post-capitalism Speculation Spontaneous order Venture philanthropy. Anarcho-capitalism Authoritarian capitalism Democratic capitalism Dirigism Eco-capitalism Humanistic capitalism Inclusive capitalism Liberal capitalism Liberalism Libertarian capitalism Neo-capitalism Neoliberalism Objectivism Ordoliberalism Right-libertarianism Social democracy.
At a base level we can say that when we make reference to 'neoliberalism', we are generally referring to the new political, economic and social arrangements within society that emphasize market relations, re-tasking the role of the state, and individual responsibility. Most scholars tend to agree that neoliberalism is broadly defined as the extension of competitive markets into all areas of life, including the economy, politics and society.
Neoliberalism is essentially an intentionally imprecise stand-in term for free market economics, for economic sciences in general, for conservatism, for libertarians and anarchists, for authoritarianism and militarism, for advocates of the practice of commodification, for center-left or market-oriented progressivism, for globalism and welfare state social democracies, for being in favor of or against increased immigration, for favoring trade and globalization or opposing the same, or for really any set of political beliefs that happen to be disliked by the person s using the term.
Main article: Economic history of Brazil. Further information: Crisis of , Miracle of Chile , and Chilean protests. Related movements. See also: Reaganomics and Reagan Era. See also: Chinese economic reform. See also: Rogernomics. See also: Structural adjustment. See also: History of the European Union. Principal works. Austrian business cycle Catallactics Creative destruction Economic calculation problem View of inflation Malinvestment Marginalism Methodological individualism Praxeology Roundaboutness Spontaneous order Subjective theory of value Theory of interest.
Austrian School economists Economic freedom Perspectives on capitalism. Libertarianism Neoliberalism Positive non-interventionism. Consequentialist libertarianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics. George Stigler. Central banks Denationalization Deregulation Economic freedom Economic integration , interdependence Economic liberalization Exchange rate Fiat currency Foreign exchange reserves Free markets Free trade Globalization Inflation adjustment Inflation targeting Intellectual property Laissez-faire Marketization Negative income tax Open market operations Private property Privatization School vouchers Single market Tax cuts Tax reform.
Alter-globalization Anti-capitalism Anti-globalization Perspectives on capitalism. Main article: Monetarism. Main article: Washington Consensus. Main article: Market fundamentalism. See also: List of countries by income equality and Income inequality in the United States. Main article: Welfare State.
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The invisible hand of the market and the iron fist of the state combine and complement each other to make the lower classes accept desocialized wage labor and the social instability it brings in its wake. After a long eclipse, the prison thus returns to the frontline of institutions entrusted with maintaining the social order. Main article: Corporatocracy. Instead of citizens, it produces consumers. Instead of communities, it produces shopping malls.
A Brief History of Neoliberalism – David Harvey
The net result is an atomized society of disengaged individuals who feel demoralized and socially powerless. See also: Criticisms of globalization. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June July Liberalism portal. Modern Political Ideologies. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
Book Review Essay: A Brief History of Neoliberalism - Jon Shefner,
London: Routledge. Foreign Policy in Focus. Retrieved 25 March Globalization and Free Trade. Infobase Publishing. The Handbook of Neoliberalism. Boas, Jordan Gans-Morse June Studies in Comparative International Development. For Business Ethics. The 'neo' part of neoliberalism indicates that there is something new about it, suggesting that it is an updated version of older ideas about 'liberal economics' which has long argued that markets should be free from intervention by the state.
In its simplest version, it reads: markets good, government bad. Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution.
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- A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey.
Harvard University Press. People do not call themselves neoliberal; instead, they tag their enemies with the term. World Health Organization. Retrieved March 30, Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press.
September Subscription or UK public library membership required. Neoliberalism has rapidly become an academic catchphrase. From only a handful of mentions in the s, use of the term has exploded during the past two decades, appearing in nearly 1, academic articles annually between and Neoliberalism is now a predominant concept in scholarly writing on development and political economy, far outpacing related terms such as monetarism, neoconservatism, the Washington Consensus, and even market reform.
Neoliberalism is easily one of the most powerful concepts to emerge within the social sciences in the last two decades, and the number of scholars who write about this dynamic and unfolding process of socio-spatial transformation is astonishing. A Dictionary of Human Geography. Princeton University Press. Friedman and Hayek are identified as the original thinkers and Thatcher and Reagan as the archetypal politicians of Western neoliberalism.
Neoliberalism here has a pejorative connotation. Foreign Policy. Retrieved Neoliberalism is a slippery concept, meaning different things to different people. Scholars have examined the relationships between neoliberalism and a vast array of conceptual categories. Neoliberalism shares many attributes with "essentially contested" concepts such as democracy, whose multidimensional nature, strong normative connotations, and openness to modification over time tend to generate substantial debate over their meaning and proper application. In recent decades, neoliberalism has become an important area of study across the humanities and social sciences.
The Economic Journal.
A Brief History of Neoliberalism
Retrieved April 23, American Institute for Economic Research. Retrieved 6 July Harper Perennial. Profit over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order. Seven Stories Press , Punctum Books, , 3. The Utopian. Retrieved 26 March Windmill Books.
People commonly think of neoliberalism as an ideology that promotes totally free markets, where the state retreats from the scene and abandons all interventionist policies. But if we step back a bit, it becomes clear that the extention of neoliberalism has entailed powerful new forms of state intervention.
The creation of a global 'free market' required not only violent coups and dictatorships backed by Western governments, but also the invention of a totalizing global bureaucracy — the World Bank, the IMF, the WTO and bilateral free-trade agreements — with reams of new laws, backed up by the military power of the United States. This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate. The Guardian. Retrieved August 22, Gold dates culled from historical sources, principally Eichengreen, Barry New York: Oxford University Press. Penn State Department of Geography. The Historical Journal.
The New Republic. Retrieved 14 August The Mont Pelerin Society.